Superhydrophobic hemostatic nanofiber composites for fast clotting and minimal adhesion
Hemostatic materials are of great importance in medicine. However, their successful implementation is still challenging as it depends on two, often counteracting, attributes; achieving blood coagulation rapidly, before significant blood loss, and enabling subsequent facile wound-dressing removal, without clot tears and secondary bleeding. Here we illustrate an approach for achieving hemostasis, rationally targeting both attributes, via a superhydrophobic surface with immobilized carbon nanofibers (CNFs). We find that CNFs promote quick fibrin growth and cause rapid clotting, and due to their superhydrophobic nature they severely limit blood wetting to prevent blood loss and drastically reduce bacteria attachment. Furthermore, minimal contact between the clot and the superhydrophobic CNF surface yields an unforced clot detachment after clot shrinkage. All these important attributes are verified in vitro and in vivo with rat experiments. Our work thereby demonstrates that this strategy for designing hemostatic patch materials has great potential.